1. Introduction. Buprenorphine sublingual formulations are approved in the United States (US) for the treatment of opioid dependence ().Buprenorphine therapy improves retention in substance abuse treatment, decreases emergency department utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors, and improves overall quality of life (Maremmani et al., 2007, Schwarz et al., 2012, Sullivan et al., 2008).
In a within-subject crossover design, non-dependent opioid-experienced volunteers (N = 8) were administered acute doses of buprenorphine (4, 8, and 16 mg) and buprenorphine/naloxone (4/1, 8/2, and 16/4 mg) via both intramuscular and sublingual routes, intramuscular hydromorphone (2 and 4 mg as an opioid agonist control), and placebo, for a ...